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Here you will find information about the activities and research achievements in the field of the Institute subject-matter and the possibilities for collaboration in research and R&D projects.

Current Projects

  • Study on HELP Mechanism of Hydrogen Embrittlement by Application of Advanced Powerful Hybrid Computer Architectures: Model Simulations and their Experimental Verification

    Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is the most devastating and unpredictable, yet least understood, mechanism of failure experienced by engineering components. The presence of hydrogen leads to severe degradation in mechanical properties and consequently a loss in structural integrity of a vast range of metals and alloys. All metals are susceptible to HE to some extent, with susceptibility generally increasing with yield strength. Even though the deleterious effect of H on the mechanical properties of metals and alloys has been studied extensively for almost one hundred years, the mechanisms responsible for the embrittling process are not understood and there are considerable disagreements in the scientific literature concerning the underlying processes that are responsible for HE, even in simple, nominally pure, material systems. A number of mechanisms of embrittlement have been proposed in the scientific literature. The mechanisms with the soundest experimental and theoretical basis are Hydrogen-enhanced decohesion (HEDE) and Hydrogen enhanced localised plasticity (HELP). HEDE is attributed to the weakening of interatomic cohesive forces where H is concentrated. HELP theory postulates that hydrogen embrittlement is a result of the increased mobility of dislocations due to the presence of hydrogen. The fracture process is a highly localized plastic failure process rather than an embrittlement. Unlike HEDE, HELP is supported by experimental observations of enhanced dislocation motion and localized slip bands in the vicinity of the crack tip in H-charged test specimens. However, the physics that lies behind enhanced dislocation motion due to hydrogen is not yet established. A comprehensive understanding of the HELP mechanism requires a more detailed reckoning than can be provided by phenomenology. The overall aim of this proposal is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the HELP mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement through an integration of advanced modelling across a wide range of special and temporal scales and experimental techniques that are appropriate to the embrittlement process. This will lead to the identification of regimes and microstructures that are resistant to embrittlement and inform the development of new design procedures for engineering alloys. We shall use Fe as a model system.

  • Synthesis and characterization of nanomodified coatings on metals on the basis of transition and rare earth oxides and study of their corrosion resistance

    The main purpose of the project is synthesis and characterization of multilayer nanocoatings obtained by sol – gel method on different kinds of steel as an active media. The objects of study are SiO2, TiO2 and ZrO2 nanocoatings modified with rare earth oxides, transition metal oxides and nanodiamonds. The microstructure and nanocharacteristics of the obtained nanocoatings will be investigated by means of various contemporary methods - XPS, SEM, TEM, the so called method “salt spray test”, etc. The main properties of nanocoatings will be investigated simultaneously. First of all, the investigations are pioneer because of the nanocoatings compositions. The scientific achievements of such investigation will comprise the elucidation of many unsolved up to now relations between the conditions for obtaining the nanocoatings and their structural characteristics as well as the dependence of the properties from these characteristics. The successful obtaining of stable coatings will have clear and meaningful applied achievement toward the development of nanotechnologies. The expected result is to extend the regions of competency and the team skills, and to the experience in the field of synthesis of ceramics and glasses new knowledge in a modern direction – synthesis of nanocoatings on steel with extending the knowledge on the multilayer coatingswill be added. The actuality of such development is defined by the wider investigation of the nanocoatings in all areas of the science and technique, as well as by the existing problems at synthesis of stable nanocoatings. The obtained new data will contribute to the development of the fundamental science. The establishment of inter – institutional partnership will allow further sustainable development of investigations in different areas in the materials science.
  • Phase – Structure Formation of Composite Coating of Chromium with Nanodiamonds on Sintered Ferrous Powders and Aluminum Alloys

    Sintered materials of ferrous powder and aluminum alloys are electrochemically coated with chromium, modified with nanodiamond particles (ND). The influence of the concentration of ND in the electrolyte and the parameters of the electrolytic process on the characteristics of the alloyed chromium layer as thickness, microstructure, yield of metal and distribution of Cr, C and Fe through the coating is studied. Some chemical and mechanical properties of the obtained composite coatings are studied in parallel. These results are presented in a sequence of publications and papers by the team members [1-7]. There is also an application for a patent with reg. No 112323/20.06.2016. But there are several problems of fundamental character remaining which solving will clarify the theory as well as the practice of the nanotechnology electrochemical metal deposition namely: • What is the role of the ND in the electrochemical chromium plating in particular and in metallization in general. Do the diamond nanoparticles take part in the phase- and structure formation of the composite coating and establishing the influence of this fact in the electroplating process. • Is the electrochemical deposition in the presence of ND a specific process, i.e. does It depend on the specific metal pair (metal matrix and coating metal) or it is of generally valid character. To solve these issues, which are the main subject of the project, it is necessary to: 1. To obtain chromium coatings modified with nanodiamond particles on sintered ferrous materials and on aluminum alloys; 2. Study the phase-and structure formation of the coatings by the methods of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). 3. Creation of methodology to study the chemical and phase composition of the coating by its separation from the basic material. Thus the status of the carbon in the matrix and in the coating will be determined, which we believe is very important for understanding the positive impact of the nanodiamond particles on the properties of the coating.

    New approach for structure and properties design of amorphous and nanocrystalline metallic foam

    Metallic glass formation can be achieved when a metallic liquid congeals into a solid on cooling without crystallizing. The glass has a structure directly inherited from the liquid. The first reported metallic glass is an alloy (Au75Si25) produced at Caltech by W. Klement (Jr.), Willens and Duwez in 1960. Metallic glasses would be very limited in their applicability if production is possible only under the extreme conditions. It is important to design compositions and production methods which make possible obtaining of amorphous metallic materials from melted alloys at modest cooling rates and in large cross-sections. It is also of crucial importance to research principles and physical phenomena which participate in bulk metallic glasses formation. Except alloy composition, development of amorphous metal matrix composites is another way to improve metallic glass properties. Various aspects of that matter are in the focuses of the current metal science. The main aim of the project is to develop mathematical models and software for numerical simulations that contribute to deeper understanding of the entire complex of physical phenomena which take part in structure formation of amorphous metallic materials and especially amorphous metallic foams. Effective instruments for structure, respectively properties, control should be determined. This aim will be achieved through fulfilment of the task as follows: 1. Mathematical description of the chemical interaction between the compounds of the glass forming alloys and looking for principles to choose composition with large range between glass transition temperature, Tg, and first crystallization temperature, Tx; 2. Modelling of gas bubbles moving in high viscous fluid; 3. Mathematical modelling of elastic-plastic behaviour of amorphous metallic foams and study improvement of amorphous metallic foams ductility due to introduction of second phase (nanocrystalline and/or gaseous); 4. Modification of existing and design and production of new unique equipment for production of amorphous metallic foams of controlled (including graded) porous structure; 5. Determination of basic mechanical properties of homogeneously structured amorphous metallic foams; 6. Experimental and theoretical investigations directed to production and characterization of structurally and functionally graded amorphous metallic foams. The fundamental aspects of the project proposed are related to: - Development of experimentally verified models for structure formation and determination of properties on the basis of structure characteristics; - Elaboration of special equipment and new method for obtaining of homogeneously or gradually structured amorphous metallic foams. Such work is not reported till now but this is an important subject and the positive results will move ahead not only research activity but also development ones.
  • Theoretical and experimental study of the crystallization of metal alloy with nanoparticles inserted into it

    There are studies on the crystallization of the alloy AlSi with introduced nanoparticles (NP). Two types of nanoparticles are used TiN and SiC. They are characterized by melting temperatures considerably exceeding the temperature of the molten alloy. It has been found that after the introduction, they are distributed homogeneously in the melt. When starting the cooling and the temperature is lowered below the liquidus, nucleuses originate in the melt, on which solid phase grows. The presence of NP leads to an increase in the number of nucleuses and consequently the grains that are formed around them. This changes the parameters of dendrites, which form the grains. The study of the described process will be realized by the development of one-dimensional and three-dimensional mathematical model. These models include equations for heat exchange, crystallization and the diffusion of the alloying element in the area between the growing dendrites. One-dimensional model is a simplified version with homogenous temperature depending only on time. Three-dimensional model allows to study the behavior of the alloy in different parts of the three-dimensional field. It is solved for the corresponding micro volumes in those points. The models can be solved numerically using appropriate methods. One will find: temperature dependence of the time, the cooling rate, overcooling, the release rate of the solid phase, change of the radius of the dendritic branches, the distance between the secondary axes or the average grain size and distribution of the concentration of the alloying component with and without NP.

    Surface modification of aluminum and aluminum alloys with nanoparticles by means of intensity energy flows

    This project aims to obtain modified with nanoparticles of TiCN and AlN layers on aluminum and AlSi12Cu2NiMg alloy substrate by means of selective electron beam melting with increased hardness and wear resistance and clarify the processes of nucleus and structure formation in conditions of rapid crystallization. We plan to study the microstructure and properties of the resulting coatings; optimize of the technological parameters of surface treatment with an intensity energy source; optimize the concentration of nanoparticles in the layers; determine the shape and size of the liquid bath and speed crystallization at selective electron beam melting with a scanning electron beam by methods of numerical modeling; investigate conditions and processes of nucleation and structure formation in introducing nanoparticles in the substrate of aluminum and AlSi12Cu2NiMg; explain the as-obtained layers properties, study the role of nanoparticles with a small and a large difference in the lattice parameters compared to those of the aluminum in the process of rapid crystallization.
  • Development of technology for arc overlay welding of wear-resistant layers by introduction of nano-materials in the overlaid metal

    The main objective of the project is development and implementation of innovative technology for arc overlay welding of wear-resistant layers by adding nano-materials to the melt of the weld pool.

    Mobile systems for critical infrastructure security

    The main goal of the project is developing and improving of advanced security systems based on different types of sensors. In general, the indicative parameters for risk and threat estimation are human heat, movements, vibrations and breaking which induce statics alterations of the system. The sensors which are the most important part of the security systems are based on these principles.
  • Adaptive sensory systems based on self-configuring communication-network for environmental parameters analysis

    The project main objective is developing and improving advanced security systems, according to the required security levels of protection, cost and expedience.

    Improvement of the Urban Security and Defence through the Implementation of Advance Detection Sensors\' System

    In the Europe urban setting provides access to highly integrated infrastructure systems — such as water, electrical and gas supplies; communications; and public transport — as well as to numerous objects such as chemical plants, oil refineries, nuclear plants, etc.
  • Development of new lead-free ceramic materials for electronics

    The project is related to the EU policy claiming that from 21.06.2016 the manufactured and imported electric and electronic ceramics should be free of heavy metals. As a member state of EU, Bulgaria is obliged to observe that policy, too.

    Technical transfer on design documentation, development and optimization of technology for gas counter pressure casting of typical knuckles

    It is developed a complex design and technological documentation of the entire process of production, by a gas counter pressure casting, of a critical part from the suspension of the cars (knuckle).
  • Joint Research Program of Nano-modified High Performance Piston Alloy

    It is developed a technology for introduction into the melt of piston aluminum alloy of nanosized powders-modifiers and their assimilation.

    Research and development of technologies for the recycling of metal scrap

    Due to the increasing amount of metal waste and a mill scale, in particular, there is a need for research of effective technologies for recovery of such waste
  • Improvement of the technology for casting of aluminum alloy castings by computer simulation and nanotechnology

    Through computer simulation and introduction of nanomaterials are optimized the casting technologies of different by geometry aluminum castings.

    Research and determination of optimal technological parameters of electric-resistance welding process of steel wires and reinforcing steel, aiming to increase the quality of the welded joints and reducing of the energy costs

    The main objective is control and management of the electric-resistance welding process of wires and reinforcing steel. This is of great importance for the industry, due to the growing consumption of welded mesh in the building industry, livestock breeding (poultry farming), the commerce and household.
  • Investigation of the interaction of silicate systems from an industrial slag with alkali solutions

    The objective of this project is directed towards obtaining new fundamental knowledge on the interaction of a composite glassy phase from pyrometallurgical copper slag with alkaline solutions. The slag has a complex chemical composition, structure, and a strong mineral crystallization ability and the knowledge of the solubility of silica in an alkaline solution and subsequent neutralization with mineral acid cannot be directly applied. The obtained data can be used to create new environmentally friendly processes of recycling slag, and for preparation of micro and nano-size, amorphous silicon dioxide (silica) with low density and large surface area.

    Utilization of fly ash by-product for production of advanced light-weight low-cost aluminum based composites

    The project can be considered as a complex step in utilization of fly ash by-product trough development of bio-mimetic high-porosity structures and light-weight metallic composites. The main goal is elaboration of technologies for utilization of fly ash generated in China and Bulgaria as reinforce phase in metal matrix composites. Some aluminum alloys will be used as matrix. The obtained composites will be structurally and mechanically characterized and will be analyzed prospects for their application as structural and functional elements.
  • New generation light-weight materials for advanced space applications

    The main objective of the project is development, characterization and application of new class of light-weight high performance engineered metallic and metal-matrix composite materials with homogeneous or graded structure. These materials shall provide revolutionary capability, especially for aircraft and spacecraft systems. The specific objective of this proposal is development of porous magnesium alloy reinforced by high strength fibers or metallic wires.


  • International Conference of Metals, Ceramics and Composites Towards a successful transfer of materials science into industry 25th - 27th September 2019, Varna, Bulgaria The main goal of ICMCC 2019 is to establish a new international…
  • The 5th National conference with international participation “Material Science, Hydro- and Aerodynamics and National Security 2015” The 5th National conference with international participation “Material Science, Hydro- and Aerodynamics and National Security 2015”  took place in…

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